The Civil Writer Magazine The Birmingham campaign, or Birmingham movement, was a movement organized in early 1963 by the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) to bring attention to the integration efforts of African Americans in Birmingham, Alabama. Bull Connor enforced legal racial segregation and denied civil rights to black citizens, especially during the Southern Christian Leadership Conference's Birmingham campaign of 1963. He became an international symbol of institutional racism. Bombingham is a nickname for Birmingham, Alabama during the Civil Rights Movement due to the 50 dynamite explosions that occurred in the city between 1947 and 1965. The bombings were initially used against African Americans attempting to move into neighborhoods with entirely white residents. 56 years later Birmingham Alabama has its first Black mayor. Alabama's capital city, a hub of the civil rights movement decades ago, is about to inaugurate its first African-American mayor. Steven Reed will be sworn in as mayor of Montgomery in a ceremony late Tuesday morning at the Montgomery Performing Arts Center. A site of important civil rights events, it also was the first capital of the Confederacy early in the Civil War, and many streets and schools still bear Confederate names. Montgomery was the site of the Rosa Parks-inspired bus boycott in 1955 and Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.'s Dexter Avenue Baptist Church, as well as the destination of the 1965 Selma-to-Montgomery protest marches that were met with brutal police violence and led to the Voting Rights Act.